The concept of screw goes back to era around 200 BC, the actual screw was developed in 16th century AD. Inventor of screw is still unknown (maybe Leonardo DaVinci). Whoever the craftsman was realized that a circular inclined plane in the stem of the nail stayed more securely. The principle behind it is that the circular inclined plane (called threads) which increase the surface area of contact and interlocking with the surface (increases the friction between thread and the surface). This was how modern screw was born.
While modern screw were product of innovation, there was a primitive type of screw which changed life of people in the past, called Archimedes Screw (Yes, it was invented by Archimedes; see figure2 above). It was a screw fitted inside cylindrical tube. When the screw was rotated, it moved the water from lower level to higher. The principle used is surface tension that existed between water and screw surface, which lifted the water. I can’t imagine how much burden was lifted from farmers with its introduction.
Nuts and Bolts are devices which binds two or more objects. Nut is analogous to screw and bolt is fitted at its bottom to hold nut in its place. Earlier they were handmade. So there was a high degree of chances that bolt did not match the nut. But with introduction of machines of industrial revolution, precise size of nuts and bolts were made. It was important since nuts and bolts were used everywhere, from aircraft to toys and everywhere.